Tag Archives: f-number

Wavefront to PSF to MTF: Physical Units

In the last article we saw that the Point Spread Function and the Modulation Transfer Function of a lens could be easily obtained numerically by applying Discrete Fourier Transforms to its generalized exit pupil function P twice in sequence.[1]

Obtaining the 2D DFTs is easy: simply feed MxN numbers representing the two dimensional complex image of the pupil function in its uv space to a fast fourier transform routine and, presto, it produces MxN numbers that represent the amplitude of the PSF on the xy sensing plane, as shown below for the pupil function of a perfect lens with a circular aperture and MxN = 1024×1024.

Figure 1. 1a Left: Array of numbers representing a circular aperture (zeros for black and ones for white).  1b Right: Array of numbers representing the PSF of image 1a (contrast slightly boosted).

Simple and fast.  Wonderful.  Below is a slice through the center, the 513th row, zoomed in.  Hmm….  What are the physical units on the axes of displayed data produced by the DFT?

Figure 2. A slice through the center of the PSFshown in figure 1b.

Less easy – and the subject of this article as seen from a photographic perspective.

Continue reading Wavefront to PSF to MTF: Physical Units

Aberrated Wave to Image Intensity to MTF

Goodman, in his excellent Introduction to Fourier Optics[1], describes how an image is formed on a camera sensing plane starting from first principles, that is electromagnetic propagation according to Maxwell’s wave equation.  If you want the play by play account I highly recommend his math intensive book.  But for the budding photographer it is sufficient to know what happens at the exit pupil of the lens because after that the transformations to Point Spread and Modulation Transfer Functions are straightforward, as we will show in this article.

The following diagram exemplifies the last few millimeters of the journey that light from the scene has to travel in order to smash itself against our camera’s sensing medium.  Light from the scene in the form of  field  U arrives at the front of the lens.  It goes through the lens being partly blocked and distorted by it (we’ll call this blocking/distorting function P) and finally arrives at its back end, the exit pupil.   The complex light field at the exit pupil’s two dimensional uv plane is now  U\cdot P as shown below:

Figure 1. Simplified schematic diagram of the space between the exit of a camera lens and its sensing plane. The space is filled with air.

Continue reading Aberrated Wave to Image Intensity to MTF

Taking the Sharpness Model for a Spin

The series of articles starting here outlines a model of how the various physical components of a digital camera and lens can affect the ‘sharpness’ – that is the spatial resolution – of the  images captured in the raw data.  In this one we will pit the model against MTF curves obtained through the slanted edge method[1] from real world raw captures both with and without an anti-aliasing filter.

With a few simplifying assumptions, which include ignoring aliasing and phase, the spatial frequency response (SFR or MTF) of a photographic digital imaging system near the center can be expressed as the product of the Modulation Transfer Function of each component in it.  For a current digital camera these would typically be the main ones:

(1)   \begin{equation*} MTF_{sys} = MTF_{lens} (\cdot MTF_{AA}) \cdot MTF_{pixel} \end{equation*}

all in two dimensions Continue reading Taking the Sharpness Model for a Spin

Equivalence in Pictures: Focal Length, f-number, diffraction

Equivalence – as we’ve discussed one of the fairest ways to compare the performance of two cameras of different physical formats, characteristics and specifications – essentially boils down to two simple realizations for digital photographers:

  1. metrics need to be expressed in units of picture height (or diagonal where the aspect ratio is significantly different) in order to easily compare performance with images displayed at the same size; and
  2. focal length changes proportionally to sensor size in order to capture identical scene content on a given sensor, all other things being equal.

The first realization should be intuitive (future post).  The second one is the subject of this post: I will deal with it through a couple of geometrical diagrams.

Continue reading Equivalence in Pictures: Focal Length, f-number, diffraction

Equivalence and Equivalent Image Quality: Signal

One of the fairest ways to compare the performance of two cameras of different physical characteristics and specifications is to ask a simple question: which photograph would look better if the cameras were set up side by side, captured identical scene content and their output were then displayed and viewed at the same size?

Achieving this set up and answering the question is anything but intuitive because many of the variables involved, like depth of field and sensor size, are not those we are used to dealing with when taking photographs.  In this post I would like to attack this problem by first estimating the output signal of different cameras when set up to capture Equivalent images.

It’s a bit long so I will give you the punch line first:  digital cameras of the same generation set up equivalently will typically generate more or less the same signal in e^- independently of format.  Ignoring noise, lenses and aspect ratio for a moment and assuming the same camera gain and number of pixels, they will produce identical raw files. Continue reading Equivalence and Equivalent Image Quality: Signal

Deconvolution PSF Changes with Aperture

We have  seen in the previous post how the radius for deconvolution capture sharpening by a Gaussian PSF can be estimated for a given setup in well behaved and characterized camera systems.  Some parameters like pixel aperture and AA strength should remain stable for a camera/prime lens combination as f-numbers are increased (aperture is decreased) from about f/5.6 on up – the f/stops dear to Full Frame landscape photographers.  But how should the radius for generic Gaussian deconvolution  change as the f-number increases from there? Continue reading Deconvolution PSF Changes with Aperture