This post will continue looking at the spatial frequency response measured by MTF Mapper off slanted edges in DPReview.com raw captures and relative fits by the ‘sharpness’ model discussed in the last few articles. The model takes the physical parameters of the digital camera and lens as inputs and produces theoretical directional system MTF curves comparable to measured data. As we will see the model seems to be able to simulate these systems well – at least within this limited set of parameters.
The following fits refer to the green channel of a number of interchangeable lens digital camera systems with different lenses, pixel sizes and formats – from the current Medium Format 100MP champ to the 1/2.3″ 18MP sensor size also sometimes found in the best smartphones. Here is the roster with the cameras as set up:
The series of articles starting here outlines a model of how the various physical components of a digital camera and lens can affect the ‘sharpness’ – that is the spatial resolution – of the images captured in the raw data. In this one we will pit the model against MTF curves obtained through the slanted edge methodfrom real world raw captures both with and without an anti-aliasing filter.
With a few simplifying assumptions, which include ignoring aliasing and phase, the spatial frequency response (SFR or MTF) of a photographic digital imaging system near the center can be expressed as the product of the Modulation Transfer Function of each component in it. For a current digital camera these would typically be the main ones:
We now know how to calculate the two dimensional Modulation Transfer Function of a perfect lens affected by diffraction, defocus and third order Spherical Aberration – under monochromatic light at the given wavelength and f-number. In digital photography however we almost never deal with light of a single wavelength. So what effect does an illuminant with a wide spectral power distribution, going through the color filter of a typical digital camera CFA before the sensor have on the spatial frequency responses discussed thus far?
Spherical Aberration (SA) is one key component missing from our MTF toolkit for modeling an ideal imaging system’s ‘sharpness’ in the center of the field of view in the frequency domain. In this article formulas will be presented to compute the two dimensional Point Spread and Modulation Transfer Functions of the combination of diffraction, defocus and third order Spherical Aberration for an otherwise perfect lens with a circular aperture.
Spherical Aberrations result because most photographic lenses are designed with quasi spherical surfaces that do not necessarily behave ideally in all situations. For instance, they may focus light on slightly different planes depending on whether the respective ray goes through the exit pupil closer or farther from the optical axis, as shown below:
Having shown that our simple two dimensional MTF model is able to predict the performance of the combination of a perfect lens and square monochrome pixel we now turn to the effect of the sampling interval on spatial resolution according to the guiding formula:
The hats in this case mean the Fourier Transform of the relative component normalized to 1 at the origin (), that is the individual MTFs of the perfect lens PSF, the perfect square pixel and the delta grid.
Sampling in the Spatial and Frequency Domains
Sampling is expressed mathematically as a Kronecker delta function at the center of each pixel (the red dots below).
Now that we know from the introductory article that the spatial frequency response of a typical perfect digital camera and lens can be modeled simply as the product of the Modulation Transfer Function of the lens and pixel area, convolved with a Dirac delta grid at cycles-per-pixel spacing
Over the last couple of years I’ve been using Frans van den Bergh‘s excellent open source MTF Mapper to measure the Modulation Transfer Function of imaging systems off a slanted edge target, as you may have seen in these pages. As long as one understands how to get the most out of it I find it a solid product that gives reliable results, with MTF50 typically well within 2% of actual in less than ideal real-world situations (see below). I had little to compare it to other than to tests published by gear testing sites: they apparently mostly use a commercial package called Imatest for their slanted edge readings – and it seemed to correlate well with those.
Then recently Jim Kasson pointed out sfrmat3, the matlab program written by Peter Burns who is a slanted edge method expert who worked at Kodak and was a member of the committee responsible for ISO12233, the resolution and spatial frequency response standard for photography. sfrmat3 is considered to be a solid implementation of the standard and many, including Imatest, benchmark against it – so I was curious to see how MTF Mapper 0.4.1.6 would compare. It did well.
My preferred method for measuring the spatial resolution performance of photographic equipment these days is the slanted edge method. It requires a minimum amount of additional effort compared to capturing and simply eye-balling a pinch, Siemens or other chart but it gives immensely more, useful, accurate, absolute information in the language and units that have been used to characterize optical systems for over a century: it produces a good approximation to the Modulation Transfer Function of the two dimensional Point Spread Function of the camera/lens system in the direction perpendicular to the edge.
Much of what there is to know about a system’s spatial resolution performance can be deduced by analyzing such a curve, starting from the perceptually relevant MTF50 metric, discussed a while back. And all of this simply from capturing the image of a black and white slanted edge, which one can easily produce and print at home.